The Roman Republic
Human history there have been numerous opportunities, including the rise of the Roman Empire is a problem historians have long debated. What makes theninconspicuous luomaxiaocun a includes Eastern Mediterranean, across Europe,Asia, Africa countries, let us explore together to create this miracle of the world–Rome.
Italy peninsula is the cradle of the ancient Roman State, the boot peninsulaof the Eastern Mediterranean into two, from ancient Mesopotamia and Egyptcivilization, civilization in the Eastern Mediterranean earlier startingtimes, West of Eastern Mediterranean from the far East, civilization startedrelatively late. Is located in Italy peninsula north of Po plain, land fertile, plain North of towering with Alps mountain, will Italy and Central separated, Peninsula East Mountain steep, more is cliff, River short and urgent, adverse sailing, coastline straight, Harbour rarely, Peninsula West mountain sustained oblique, more hills, River more long, easy sailing, several more long of river in the, most famous of Tiber, river of South has a plain, this is Rome people of birthplace—-Latin plain.
The northern end of ancient Roman city on the plains of Latin, very close to the left bank of the Tiber River downstream from the sea, this is a Hillarea, some more than 1000 years BC, seven hills in the mountains, there areseveral small villages. In ancient times, the mountains Valley streams,vertical and horizontal, Marsh is cloudy. Later, the villagers in the hillsand water draining Valley, paving stone, turned barren swamp into a flatsquare. Legend, the ancestor of the Romans is the God of war and Princessleft a pair of twin brothers, was abandoned on the Tiber River by enemysince childhood, a female Wolf came to the River, saw the crying baby in thebasket, then use your own milk to feed the baby, so they survived. Later,Shepherd and adopted two children, gave them the name Romulus and mousse,brothers who grow up to kill enemies, and built a new city, big brotherRomulus in the competition to beat my brother, named after their town,independence for the King, resulting in Rome.
“According to the traditional view, established the city of Rome in 753 BC,from 753 BC to 509 BC, call it the period of Kings in history. In the midstof this period of Kings, a total of seven Kings of Rome, and finally a Kingxiaotakewen, gangsterism, fulfilment of tyranny, the people of Rome wassuffering, and finally in 509 BC, started a riot and overthrew the King‘srule, and established a Republic. Entry into the Republican period of Romanhistory “
Drove out the King, Rome entered a new regime—-Republic.
Republic of Rome is a contains the monarchy, aristocracy and democracy mixedsystem of Government, the country‘s Supreme Leader, called the Archon, atotal of two, one–year term, elected by the citizens ‘ Assembly. Veteran Hospital early in Wang times on has exists, it is legislation, considered, Advisory political of central institutions, by 300 name nobles origin of veteran composition, to Republic early, Government was nobles by monopoly, Archon, veteran are from nobles family, civilians only vote, and no to be elected, nobles using political privileges oppression civilians, grabs public to, led civilians back Shang heavy of debt, civilians unwilling to stand oppression, for towards equal right, brave and perseverance to struggle with, however they no select war, civil war and bleeding.
In 496 BC, a group of civilians carrying weapons, rations left Rome,occupying a hill called the holy mountain, standoff with the aristocracy.Known to history as the first repatriation movement, without the support ofcivilians, nobility does not have enough soldiers in the war, so noblesagreed to allow civilians to enjoy more power, allowing them to organizetheir own Parliament, election officials—a new Tribune. Protection ofcivilians from the aristocratic bullying. Civilian movement in the period ofthe Roman Republic from 494 BC – 287 BC lasted more than 200 years. 450 BC,on behalf of the civilian population and nobles established and enacted thefirst law of the Statute of the 12 tables, can protect their rights andinterests are the civilian population.
Park in 336 BC, Tribune Li Ximin uz was elected Consul of the first civilianpower, passed a law, two consuls must be headed by an aristocrat and acivilian co-Chair. To the Fourth century BC, various senior governmentoffices are open to civilians, even there have been civilian figure in theSenate, a group of civilians upstart comes into being.
In the late Fourth century BC, preparation against debt slavery,contradictions between the aristocrats and the plebeians of Rome wasreleased, meanwhile, embarked on a path of expansion of the Roman Republic.Lack of funds of the early Roman Republic, territory is small, are at riskis eliminated by neighbours at any time, in its first 100 years, Rome wasspent in constant conflicts with neighbors. The late Fifth century BC, theRomans gradually dominate in the battle, in the city of Victoria to conquerand destroy the Etruria people, city, territory increased 1 time in RomeRome, take the first step to conquer the world.
400 BC, Italy northern mountains, the sudden appearance of a group ofGaulish tribes, brushing, 390 BC, advance to ten kilometers from the city ofRome of the Arya River, then broke into the Rome, set fire to the city ofRome. Seven months later, the Gauls and the Romans were forced to surrenderand hand over most of the ransom back. Although the Gauls destroyed Rome,but mentally much stronger than walls of the Romans, after recovering,continued expansion. After several setbacks, Rome Italy kanpeiniya incentral area in the Pocket, the Romans controlled the northern and CentralItaly Hou, begins in southern Italy attack southern Italy small nationseverywhere, as Greece was built by immigrants, he DUN is a Spartan colony,and Greece are more linked to local, to fight against Rome, his villageLondon seeking help from pyrrhus King xiladeyibilusi. Pyrrhus is Greece one of the most prominent military commanders, and wanted to become AlexanderII, conquered the Eastern Mediterranean world, his village at Nathan‘srequest hit the spot.
280 BC, pyrrhus led 20,020 infantry and archers, 3,000 cavalry and 20 warelephants in his village at Nathan landed in the battle near helakeliya, theRomans had never seen a war elephant, panic over, defeated until 275 BC, theRomans finally made a turnaround, defeating pyrrhus. In 272 BC, Nathan was forced to surrender in his village, to the Park by the middle of the firstthree centuries, apart from the Po Valley, and Italy the rest fell into thehands of the Romans.
After more than 100 years of warfare, Rome finally conquered Italy, but Romedoes not form a unified State, but according to the diversity of theconquered area, adopt a policy of divide and rule, relying on tribal andregional social mobility to Italy for treatment, this divide-and-rule policyfor a long period of time, guarantee the stability of the Roman rear.
“The Roman conquest of Italy yihou, continues to the Western Region Eastern Mediterranean development, so another country in this place with theoriginal Carthaginian conflict. From 264 to 146 BC, Romans and Carthaginiansfought a three large-scale wars, as was a Phoenician colony of Carthage, andRoman and Phoenician Punic people artificially, so the massive war called the three Punic Wars. ”
A. D. Qian 216, both in Italy Cannae area occurred fighting, Rome to 80,000 infantry and 6,000 Cavalry of absolute advantage, challenge Hani pulled of 40,000 infantry and 10,000 Cavalry, however is in military genius Han pulled of before times has defeats, Rome 54,000 people was fighter, 18,000 people captured, and Carthage aspects only loss has 6,000 people, Cannae of war became Western history Shang beat of very militant cases, was later of many military strategy learning who by widely attention.
Cannae battle defeat Hou, southern, Central and North Italy of some area have from Rome, kanpeiniya of jiapuya and Sicily of Syria bathroom holder, city also are into Carthage, but, Han pulled after all minimise hit far, lack supplies, A. D. Qian 204, Rome troops attack North Africa land too basic soil, Han pulled had to evacuation Italy, huishi North Africa, defend mother State, however, this winners encountered has real tough of opponents, A. D. Qian 202, young of Rome Commander West Kinabalu o beat has Han pulled,Carthage surrendered again, becoming a vassal of the Romans, the RomanRepublic in its heyday, around the same time, Roman and Eastern Eastern Mediterranean opened a new battlefield. Rome conquered Greece and MacedoniaSyria match s the old Kingdom, Asia minor and Thrace region includes in itsterritory. BC one century, completely conquered Syria and Palestine. Julius Caesar conquered the mountain outside Gaul, Rome‘s territory extended to theregions of Britain.
30 BC, Caesar‘s heir Octavian defeated his political opponents, Antony andEgypt Queen Cleopatra Coalition, end Egypt‘s Ptolemaic Dynasty.
Heyday of the Roman Republic, territory from the North of England in theWest, East to Armenia mountain, Syria the desert and upper reaches of theEuphrates River, South of the Sahara desert, North to the Rhine, the Danubeand the Highlands of Northern Ireland, under the jurisdiction of about 54million people, huge Eastern Mediterranean complete Roman Lake, correspondsto the Roman and Chinese Han Yao in the West, was the most powerful countryin the world.
A series of large-scale conquest after the Third century BC, Rome had a hugeimpact on society.
“For Rome people for, war on like business agricultural, handicraft and commercial as, they is a production of way, Rome people using war of victory, put original dispersed of wealth are concentrated to they of hands, for they service, so each victory zhihou, are can of pour large of reparations, like, first times cloth hide war victory zhihou, Rome people on from Carthage staff in the get has 3200 Tower blue special, second times cloth hide war yihou, and get has 11000 Tower blue special, and as A. D. Qian 168, Roman general Bruce Pi Dena by three days after the war, it gets alot of wealth, the wealth that the Senate decided from the second year (167BC) began to tax exempt citizens of all Roman citizens. ”
Rome conquered the region, particularly Italy outside the area, this form ofmanagement by the province, to organized looting.
“Line province annual are must to Rome citizens paid large of tax, like Sicily line province, annual roughly to to Rome paid 3 million motorcycle end of of food, this 3 million motorcycle end of of food equivalent to 100,000 Rome citizens a years of rations, so Rome of prosperity, Rome of tall of building, and Rome smooth of road, and Rome of welfare system are is established in exploitation line Province residents and slave of based Shang established up of. Of course, the war brought great wealth to Rome at thesame time, also contributed to the collective changes within the Romancitizens. Rome Republic period implemented citizens business, army by occupies land of farmers citizens composition, wartime, citizens are shawl battle, usually is farmer, however, with war scale of constantly expanded, citizens are of served time also became increasingly long, dang near of soldiers returned to home Shi found, after war looted of homes like autumn in the of leaves, fields deserted, family which life of small farm to was sold debt, became has rich NPC Manor of part, Luxurious aristocratic countryhouse bathed in the peninsula under a bright sun, and small farmers shabbycottages in stark contrast.
Civilians after the loss of land, only run to the city of Rome and othermajor cities in search of work, to the end of the Republic, MI set in Rome, the city‘s homeless population about 320,000 people, accounting for aboutone-third the number of citizens at that time. The other hand, the war haspromoted the rapid rise and development of Knight forces. Knight the phrasewas originally used to refer to the army cavalry, later extended to all haveenough money, feed horse people to serve as Cavalry, and then later,approximately to the Second century BC, used this term calling property more than 400,000 saisisi, but outside of the dominant noble noble person.
Those in the war or made a fortune after the war many nobles and Knights,they loot public lands unbridled aggression, annexation of fellow citizens,was born in a noble family but compassionate Bao min–Tiberius Gracchus ‘loud and in the Assembly, and civilians told wrong. In 133 BC, Tiberius–Gracchus ‘ as a Tribune provoked a redistribution of land, policies toprotect farmers ‘ interests, reactionary Senator nobles desperatelyobstructing reform, next year, in the Assembly of the electoral Tribune, ‘Gu Bei a mob and killed. 10 years later, his younger brother Gaius–Gracchus ‘ support of the people, elected Tribune again, continuing to landlesspeasants, as Italy battled over access to citizenship.
In 121 BC, Gaius–Gracchus ‘ I like his brother in a pool, Gracchus bloodshedcaused by the reform, opened the prelude of a century of civil war.
From 133 BC to 30 BC, due to the internal conflicts in the Roman Republic,the ruling class turf wars and large-scale civil war. In 73 BC, Italy nativea famous Spartan Kern slave uprising, the Gladiators of Capua Kern wagingbattle–trained slaves in Sparta breaking the cage, they managed to break through the lines of the Roman army, he moved to North and South, seriouslywrote slave owner class order. Insurgents who eventually collapsed in a pool of blood in the Rome masters has been living an ordinary citizen.
Rome allies Italy who were dissatisfied with Roman rule, requirement that the equal citizenship, Confederate uprising broke out in 91 BC, the RomanRepublic faced a grave crisis unprecedented, not willing to succumb to Romanrule of subsidiary overseas countries waiting in the wings.
Late Republic, the Romans continued to rely on elected executive officialsoften change, but on those who hold the heavily military generals, Marius,Sulla, Pompey, Crassus and Caesar’s military strongman has emerged, thesupreme power of the Republic gradually into their pocket.
In 87 BC, Marius coup d ‘ état, Qin Na authoritarian in their executivecapacity.
81 BC Sulla is declared dictator indefinitely, established a militarydictatorship.
60–45 BC, Rome Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus oligarchy of the former threesituations.
A. D. Qian 49, Caesar captured regime, get lifelong dictatorship officer title, preliminary lay monarchy overall of mode, Caesar died, regime fall into Anthony, housing big dimension, Lei Bida Hou three head hands, last, housing big dimension beat all competition opponents, end has civil war, to help name, in Republic coat of cover Xia, implemented monarchy ruled, Rome Republic in internal and external of weight Xia Dim disintegration.