Hanging gardens–the Babylon forever dream
Babylon was the capital of the Babylonian Empire, located in the banks of the Euphrates River, about 400 miles northwest of the Persian Gulf; also in the Eastern Mediterranean to the East, with more than 600 miles, in what is now Iraq‘s territory. The city is due to the famous Kings Hammurabi (1792 to 1750 BC BC) famously, he had developed his influential codes, code now showcased at the Louvre in Paris. During hisreign in the Babylonian city of destiny, good or bad, but when the Neo–Babylonianor Chaldean dynasty dynasty reached its peak. During this period, a series of impressive and memorable ruler, whose names survived in the Mesopotamia culture disappeared. 612 BC the Assyrian dynasty collapsed, the founder of this dynasty nabopalashaer with his allies—the Medes and Lydia, who is responsible for this, or else the generation most likely to keep control of politics and life. His son Nebuchadnezzar, called aibuzhaderuisa in the book of Daniel was in Mesopotamia, one of the most famous and most credited King, he adopted an aggressive strategy to expand and maintain his power. According to the Bible, he worked in Syria, Palestine and Egypt waged war, and overthrew the King of the Jews, which many Jews moved to Babylon in597 BC was forced to.
Later, he also destroyed the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. In 586 BC, large numbersmoved to the Jews of Babylon. The dynasty of King zedekiah.
At the national level, was a tireless builders of Nebuchadnezzar. He invested a large amount of labor in the production of numerous mud–brick, and under the guidanceof the architects, the mud–brick walls of palaces, temples, gates and ornate, their grand scale, visiting celebrities and ordinary people to rule all clap wow. A feature of these buildings is the most magnificent buildings, using the blue glazed tiles, and some of the bricks are also embedded with the lion, ox and Dragon reliefs, in order toshow the King with spectacular and imposing. Herodotus on the classic narrative description of Babylon of Nebuchadnezzar built the city, have survived these statues isa testament to his magnificent achievements.
Germany luobote·keerdewei at the beginning of this century by archaeologists discovered the remains of Babylon, much of the city has been excavated. In addition to the ruins of the city, historians still has the King of Babylon were written that were leftof the cuneiform evidence. They very much hope that God is able to make their achievements in mind, in order to make future generations a better view and a long written record of their building programmes, they repair and rebuilding process.
Such a building inscription is a feature of this dynasty, for modern scholars, these intermittent sources needs to be sort, and cuneiform text analysis. In addition to this the King outside his record, there is a very valuable book, the topography of Babylonfor our reference, full-text book Board for 5, it perfectly describes the city, listed thecity‘s streets, temples, gates and temples name. This book for those interested in 1000 BC, Babylon, are priceless.
Search for gardens, to make people wonder is here, in all kinds of cuneiformrecords, did not mention the legendary show something of a miracle; in descriptions of Babylonian inscriptions, also did not address the views spectacular garden building. This enable us to make such a bold assumption: If description is credible, that the building must be later, after considerable technical processing. Next, we will thenhave a look there from later writers gather to materials about the hanging gardensof Babylon.
There are 5 people left a description of the hanging gardens, of which the most representative is beiluosuosi. Beiluosuosi was one of Alexander the great during the Babylonian priests, have Chaldean origin, generally believed that he was born after 350BC. In later life, he left to live in Cowes Isle of Babylon, but in about 280 BC, he wrote a valuable book of the Kingdom of Babylon. Part is designed to Greece and the use of cuneiform introduce people to the cultures of Mesopotamia, another part is related to the Assyrian culture, this is an accurate and detailed description of Babylon‘sbook. From beiluosuosi some things left over from his Sumerian and Akkadian cuneiform and other ancient literature is quite familiar with these documents more than1 000 years old, in the important information of study remains in the society for thestudy of the history of Babylon.
The Babylonian Empire by its author to the Seleucid Gu Ershi (281 BC until 260 BC),he was interested in comprehensive understanding of Marduk and the temples of Babylonia and studying the situation. Greece considered other artificial savage people, so this book could not be disseminated widely; now it has been lost. Lucky is thatpost–some authors refer to it, so you save this priceless gift of many things, which isto a large extent with people known from cuneiform text of Mesopotamian historyand traditional match. In this paper, beiluosuosi thanks to the hanging gardens Nebuchadnezzar the King of Babylon. Later named Josephus in descriptions of Jews, author of history and culture, and beiluosuosi‘s ideas about the same, he twice refers tothis content. Here is his description of Nebuchadnezzar feat:
“In one of his palaces, there are hills, there are a variety of trees. In addition, the airPark he built for his wife, his wife is the Medes, used to build air Park in her hometown.
…… In the Palace he built high on a stone platform, carefully decorated with mountain view, plant a variety of trees, built the hanging gardens, because his wife was from end of m, like mountains. ”
Information not mentioned in the original Nebuchadnezzar‘s wife, but in the historyof the Babylonians and Medes Royal marriages were likely. Beiluosuosi tells us that the Media Princess called amidisi.
4 other authors description contains more description of the process, the followingreferences in the middle of the 1th century BC daideluosi·sikalasi period:
“Outside the fortress besieged, there is a hanging garden, the garden was not builtby the Semiramis, but then a Syria to please the King to one of his concubine and specially built. It was said that because she is Persian, longing for grass on his mountain, and asked the King in accordance with Persian unique building a garden scenery. Gardens each side up to 4 pulesilun (ancient Greece unit of length, equal to 101.2feet), due to a ladder-shaped garden sloping, so the garden looks like a theater. Built above a layer of oblique Taiwan Shi, following must has column Gallery, column Gallery will hosted garden of whole weight, and with garden of extends, they will 1.1 points to gradually increased, most above of a root column Gallery up to 50 wrist feet (ancient length units, equivalent to by elbow to in the fingertips of length, usually about for 18 inches or more long some), it straight plug garden of highest surface, and wall, high. In addition, repair walls, took a toll, 22 feet thick walls, and channel is10 feet wide between the two walls. Top of Colonnade shiliang, 16 feet long (including the overlap), 4 feet wide. On the roof, there are three layers, the first layer is mixed with large amounts of bitumen Reed and second two lines of baked brick layers are connected by the cement; the third layer is the top layer, so that the moisture in the soil will be impossible to penetrate. In all things, to accumulate sufficient depth of soil to guarantee buried tree root; after when the ground is flat, can be used to plant a variety of tree or other characteristic, in order for visitors to enjoy. Veranda in architecture than a highlight, so sunny, inside cover has many servants of the housingon the veranda, there is a path to the top of the channel, and the machine to waterthe garden. Machine garden supply large amounts of water from the River, but people outside who will not see. ”
Scholars believe that Dai Deluo accounts above may infer something that was missing in the history of Alexander, author of the book called the keleitachasi, the yalishandaren, lived in the late 4th century BC, born when Alexander defeated Darius ruledPersia. Even if he did not go to the city of Babylon, Alexandria, but also from those in service to Babylon city and soldiers there learn something. Further information was from a man named gaitesi Greece doctors, he was a prisoner of war, in around 400BC in the Persian Court as healer. Below is a description of the same original data, taken from Pamela Lyndon Travers wrote the history of Alexander:
“Is at the top of the castle gardens, a Greece poets of old topics. Them with high walls, numerous tall trees forming a large areas of greenery; the circumference of the tree up to 12 feet, 50 feet tall (which is not included in the length of the soil, they alsocould go down constantly). Support these are 20 wall, their interval of only 10 feet,wall is covered with stone pillars, paved quadrangle, strong enough to withstand the huge range of soil and irrigation water. If seen from a distance, they grow like trees in a forest on the mountain, swaying in the wind. With the passage of time, before you know it, not only would they be subject to artificial damage, and damage fromnature itself, but, although the roots are constantly strengthening, constantly thickening of the trunk increased, this structure is still intact. Legend, the garden was a King of Assyria who ruled in Babylon, built to meet the requirements of the Queen, theQueen loved forest landscapes, and modelled on the natural beauty and persuadedher husband to build a stately garden. ”
Sitebo, on this subject, he believes that this has been the missing book—the book iswritten by wansikeruitesi in the reign of Alexander wrote. It is so described:
“Babylon is located in a plain, the circumference of its walls is 385 stadia, 32 feet thick wall, between the two towers with a height of 50 cubits, the Tower 60 cubits high.Above the wall, driving 4 horses of carriage to side-by-side easily passed. Hanging garden for four-sided shape, side length 4 Kepler–LUN, it consists of a series ofvaults, and its ground and criss-cross, a cube-shaped. Foundation of the criss-crossing, inside hollowed out, but which can be covered with thick layers of soil to plant large trees, it is made of baked brick and asphalt—refers to the Foundation itself, built of vaults and arches box. In order to be able to reach the highest point of the platform roof, built a staircase stairs spiral, which kept water from the Euphrates River tothe gardens. 607-foot-wide channel of this river, flows through the center of thecity, and Garden River. ”
Finally, look at the Byzantine fihlen views, in about 250 BC he was famous, he‘s “seven wonders of the world“ is the our habits are the most common. The famous gardens of Babylon, he is so described:
The “hanging gardens of so called is because plants grown in high above the ground in the garden of a certain height, meaning that they are not to be buried in the land of his, it lies on a high platform, that is the technical features of the structure of the hanging gardens. This structure, its entire weight supported by stone pillars, stone last beam, which is very small. Beam is actually a Palm trunk, this wood, like otherwood does not, when damp or compressed it up; and it can be rhizomes and rootsprovide nutrients to the garden, this is due to the many folds in the trunk, which holds the appropriate nutrients. It is this structure, support is wide and deep in the Earth, which planted those common deciduous trees as well as a wide variety of flowersin the garden in order for visitors to enjoy. Garden cultivated land common ground,but as with land, it can apply to grafting and proliferation. Thus, we can see such a spectacle: a piece of farmland in resting on the head of a pedestrian in the columnsbelow. Even in those with foot closest to the supporting armature above lower andcloser, also remains unperturbed. Part of water straight down from the source, and then rotated by the mechanical power–driven machines, part–flow injection, guaranteed the entire arable land area of wet for a long time. Therefore, the grass is always green, leaf is always so lush. Criss-crossing channels on the ground, the roots (Department) absorbs all the water, so the tree looks lush. The building is purely a Royal luxury works of art, its most striking feature is the farmers hang in the visitor‘s head. ”
Fihlen is said to be a brilliant engineer, if he was really born in approximately 250BC, he couldn’t even get on the garden accurate secondhand materials, because, after all, where Alexander‘s death in 323 BC, Nebuchadnezzar‘s Palace has a good protective measures. goldjewelrystores
These are remnants of pagan writers to the main information on gardens, in all of their descriptions, archaeologists agree with beiluosuosi‘s point, that is, is the King Nebuchadnezzar built this garden. In the study of Babylonian city, mind you, should take into account the other Royal Garden starting from ancient Mesopotamia, because there is sufficient evidence, previous Kings had as a proud and devoted a great deal of effort to them.