Grete’s civilization has a unique character, today’s Europe, it is the origin of European civilization. It belongs to the Mediterranean life, the famous ancient Greek culture directly originated from the civilization of Crete, and shine.
Crete has experienced three different stages of the text, namely hieroglyphs, linear A and linear B. In 1953, British temperature Chusi Ventris and Schade Vic (Chadwick) through the Pylos Pylos) and Knossos city Cnossos Sketchpad that linear B script recorded but belong to a Mycenaean language, and the discovery of the ruins of the palace of Minos.
Chronology and history table
After the archaeology for our interpretation of the Cretan civilization, other civilizations have appeared. Due to the island of Crete in eastern and Maisaha Messara plain, such as Barai Just Paloicastro, vassiliki Vassiliki, Moshe Laws mochlos etc., find the later Neolithic pottery, stone bottle and rich Asian cultural characteristics of metal accessories and other, more enable us to determine the Crete has the Minoan civilization.
Two thousand BC, Crete has entered the bronze age, and become the center of the Aegean Sea. At this time, the city has become the first Minoan land of prosperity.
Due to different sites continue to dig out, so that we can divide the Minoan civilization “early Minoan” (early Minoan, ad 3000 BC to 2300 BC), middle Minoan “(middle Minoan, ad before 2300 to 1600 BC) and late Minoan” (late Minoan and ad 1600 years ago to 1100 BC) (later the dark ages people Yimainuoan civilization known the).
Crete in the middle Minoan period, is AD 2000 BC to 1700 BC, “the earliest Palace” period, the palace are king Malia and Knossos Cnossos, Fais Dos (Phaistos) Mallia. Their architectural form to is that as the king’s defenses, the around the Aegean Sea, many active in maritime trade, the trade activities of Crete bring great wealth. Adjacent to the trade area include Egypt, Xikelade area, Delos Island (d (LOS) and Sridhar (th e ra), Al Gaolide Argolide, Athena (asin E), Phoenicia area (Bibb Laws Haas Syam U Garret (RAS? Shamra? Ougarit) (to Byblos).
However, in 1700 BC, the Peloponnese, O son of man began to attack of Crete, and in was happening here is a series of disasters – a volcano, so that all the palace severely damaged. But in 1500 BC, Crete and reinvent the wheel, began to build another Knossos palace, and once again the Minoan civilization toward a peak period. Since the Knossos palace occupies important position net for catching hare, so in AD 1700 years ago to ad 1450 years, the Minoans kingship gradually reached monarch centralization of state power. Palace in workers, and servants for king palace, also on behalf of the religious and political center, and in support of wealth, leading grams of Bali. At this time, already belongs to the “after the palace period”, and on the island of Crete polis also gradually increased, but still separate. Due to the Knossos huge forces also created the Minoan Dynasty, it not only to dominate in Crete, wantonly conquest of the Aegean Sea Island and Athens, and the sea force conquered many countries become territorial. At Crete is very rich, the city have appeared many houses, in the Haruia? Teangta (Haghia Triada), tylissos Tylissos etc. all however. More French archaeologists courneya (Gournia) place to excavate out some crooked streets, and many platform of small houses. The tomb also varies, and there are many chambers.
Crete Island in 1500 BC to 1450 BCE for “seas” period, with the trend of commercial trade and imperialism. Until C. 1450 B.C., the island of Crete began to suffer the invasion of foreign aggression, a group by the Greek peninsula, O son of man in Crete landings. The disaster struck the island of Crete, and a large number of palaces and luxury homes destroyed by looting and embezzlement.
Grete has been a strong maritime fleet, but failed to establish the consolidation of the state’s army, and so when the sudden invasion of the invaders, which is caught, this also led to the destruction of the Nosas palace was destroyed, and the Empire was destroyed in the 1430 bc. At this point, almost all of Aegean Sea is subject to the same fate as Grete civilization. Long dominated the Aegean civilization of Crete end to decline, but instead are established by a son of man “Mycenaean civilization”.
Crete Island for a long time all is positioned as a “Mediterranean”, but by language, and they may belong to the original Indo European people “. Because of their short stature, glabrous, and slender body, they can be engaged in a variety of flexible activities. Women have the appearance of modern people can be called beautiful, they regarding the clothing is very particular about, not only has a complex and diverse forms, ladies more to bare breasted jacket and crepe skirt, suitable for tailoring to make their body appears to be more careful.
Because of the commercial trade with Greece, Asia Minor, the life is very exquisite. Especially in the life of the rich more luxurious, there are all kinds of copper, gold, silver, jewelry, jewelry, pay attention to hand crafted. The social class is very obvious, (free the), apetairoi the (the), the the (serfs) and the slaves (slaves), etc., are not equal in all aspects. But unlike other regions, women have equal status and have a lot of rights.
Free people who enjoy a variety of rights in the society, but if a crime or liabilities may be slaves and then free identity and rights is nowadays the citizen; semi free status after free people, they are not fully the rights of political participation; serfs is one of the property owners, but they can have their land and their livestock, slaves in Crete social identity is the lowest, they were trading but can have money. Women can get married and divorced, if divorced, they can take away all the property, the law to protect women’s life. The supreme deity of Crete are mostly women, and women are highly respected.
In Crete, most can show the place where the art is nothing more than the Knossos palace, although murals are not completely reaching maturity, has become the most powerful explanation of life and political and social conditions. If there is a monarch, sitting on the throne of the luxurious palace, wearing a lily, presided over justice, next to a “secretary” for their management of various things, such an art performance is not interesting, but not great, but in reality with natural rhyme, but also a special performance.
Handicraft industry, gold, and silver, and precious stone carving is very ingenious, not only focus on the color, but also pay attention to the form and then pottery have new breakthrough, not only has the eggshell natural geometric graphics and even more rarely used complex line, showing a in a simple and plain Jane beauty.
Crete luxury palaces and houses are very comfortable charm, not only quite rich artistic atmosphere and many fine equipment and clean water. Obvious examples is the palace of Knossos, hall with white stone, seat, padded bench, and clear pools; ceiling, which is dominated by the pillars of the Cooper; wall and decorative lion with eagle’s head and the wings of an eagle and the animal protection, but the drawback is that the room lighting and light is very limited.
The reason we know Cretan art, thanks to the efforts of the British archaeologist Evans (Evans). He was in charge of building dedicated to the rehabilitation of the island of Crete, including relief and murals, soft stone figurines, and rich decorative metal products, ceramics and enamel badges etc.. Cretan art usually don’t like Egypt and Asia as majestic, than Greek art focus on scaling, tend to ignore the work details, such as works “a woman of Paris” no ears, also do not know the depth and perspective, just a distinctive art of decorative color, selects the most colorful and bright.
Crete residents have many mass demonstrations, the guard of honour and ranks, sometimes borrowed by mules and horses pulling chariots let it hang out, more thrilling bullfighting, but not hopeless situation. The bulls had the very important role for the religious, ox horn for most wish? (the horn of Consecrtion), and respected breeding multiparous female representation. Goddess in the greatest is the center of the Minoan religion. She is a great mother and snake goddess (the snake goddess), on behalf of peace, prosperity, she by female priests serve. Religious ceremonies often to agriculture is, offering little blood, most of which are plants or grains and other field crops.
Crete religion. No male symbol, there is no celestial stars, known at the time a matriarchal society, and had great respect for women.
As for the tombs of religion, in a painting Harry Beatrix Aung sarcophagus is rich in great significance.
Any parts of the island of Crete are not found in the temple ruins sacrifices are usually in the Highlands, caves or is held around the palace, the sacred tree, and found that the clean pool and placing a tribute to the table, showing their respect for religion.