Gracchus reform background
• BC Gracchi and gaiyue·gelagu respectively in the 130 of the 2nd centuryand ensure that the 20 medium manors Aston Villa) and ladifending(Latifundium) prevalence of small estate in the era of agrarian reform.Their main problem is land, so to understand the reform, it is necessary toanalyse the Roman social background and site conditions.
3rd century BC, the Roman conquest of Italy started to expand overseas.Great conquests brought to Rome a vast land and wealth, large numbers ofslaves, greatly promoted the development of Roman slavery economy andcommodities currencies economy, originally based in the small-scale peasant economy‘s wealth concepts disintegrate. Early Roman economy was self-sufficient peasant economy, people regard frugality, self-reliance as avirtue, attention to ethics, despise money. They “whether at home or on thebattlefield are cultivating virtue everywhere show maximum harmony, peoplehardly know what greed. “According to Livy records, people pursue pleasureluxury wind from the start of the war in Asia minor. In order to maintainthe lavish lifestyle, people crazy pursuit of wealth, nobles increased theexploitation of small farmers and the province. Elder nobility when visitingthe province, with a barrel filled with wine, and came back from theprovince, have brought back was some of the same barrels, but it is filledwith silver.
Surge of wealth makes changes in social structures and values of Rome,selfish thoughts swell, collective consciousness and patriotism of Romancitizens began to lose. Romans in the war is no longer fighting for Rome,but fighting for money and interest, “people are no longer used andpreviously viewed as Rome, people no longer loved their country, devotion toRome will cease to exist.“ 2nd century BC Roman lands the biggest change isthe emergence of 100 to 500 large and medium real estate. According toCicero, the Romans believed that the land is the best form of property, andto take pride in agriculture. Read this wealth prompted the Roman Senate,the nobility, the bonded people and businessmen through purchase, lease andoccupy gets in the form of large tracts of land. The Second Punic War and137 BC Sicilian slave revolt makes the further deepening of the crisis.
These changes have caused serious consequences to Rome, Rome was a lot ofpublic land encroachment, farmers being taken over, a large number of small farmers go bankrupt. Small farmers is an important political basis of Romansociety, dependency of the country there is great for small farmers. Becausein addition to small farmers have the right to vote, but they also are amajor source of Roman soldiers, is the most solid backing expansion of Rome.If there are no small farmers for national military service, commitment,then Rome cannot expand, suppressed the slave revolt and the maintenance ofsocial order.
Although the measures taken by the people of Rome, such as serving toencourage childbirth, reducing citizens ‘ property qualifications, extendedlife of soldiers, but the effect is not very big. Brothers Gracchus ‘reforms, land and agricultural bankruptcy has been the trend of more andmore fierce. It is in this context, Gracchus introduced a land reform bill.
Second, Gracchus‘s reforms and its failure
In 133 BC, Roman plebeians and aristocrats under the support and advocacy ofreform, Tribune • Gracchus ‘ election to the civilians, he moved the landreform Act (Lex Sempronia Agraria), this part of the Bill refers to the Billof Licinius (Licinian law) provisions relating to limited individual landpossession. Will use of the huotengxiafa (Lex Hortensia) the powers of theTribune of civilians, was established by his own, father in law and hisbrother Gaius, composed of the Committee to oversee the allocation of land.Act provides that every Roman citizen the land share capped at 500, if youhave two sons, each son can hold 250 Jews, but covers the total shall notexceed 1000 per household as compensation, land can be hereditary and rent-free. Super part nationalised, to 30, to landless farmers, pay a small rent,hereditary and may be sold or transferred. Kanpeiniya is not within thescope of the Bill.
Mention will slightly of land Bill itself seems to very reasonable and meet legal program, can makes more of luomapingmin get land, has qualification participate in Rome Regiment, promote Rome jobless homeless employment and social of balance, but this a Bill is immediately was veteran Hospital of strongly against, because this a Bill directly effect has they of vested interests, even free sent nobles also very disturbed, worried they of land was confiscated. Conservative Senator, who under the direction of nobility,another officer aoketaweiwusi (M. Octavius) veto blocking legislationpassed. To promote the Bill‘s passage, will take drastic measures, he usesall of the Tribune‘s veto to reject the Government proposal that Governmentcannot be run until the Land Act was passed. When aoketaweiwusi in exerciseof the right of veto blocking land bills, will launch a citizens ‘ Assemblyto remove him from Office, other civil officer is elected to succeed him.This is the first time in the history of Rome removed Tribune, seriousviolations of the institutions of the Republic. Citizen‘s Assembly passedthe Land Act, ignoring aoketaweiwusi‘s veto, this is unacceptable to theSenate, because aoketaweiwusi the exercise of the right of veto was legal,and contempt for this, in Rome, the Senate seems to be serious violations ofthe Constitution, is a serious damage to the Republic.
A number of practical difficulties encountered in the implementation of theBill, the Senate has refused to provide funding, implementation of thesurveillance act very little money. Land law speaks only of the land for thepoorest citizens without giving them some money to buy tools, seeds and so on. Issuing such a sum of money is totally necessary, because otherwise allreforms are suspended in mid-air in . 133 BC summer homes around Kaiyuan,King of Pergamon, bequeathed to the Roman Treasury funds was put forward asa poor farmer subsidies, and handed over the Kingdom’s citizens ‘ Assembly.This is and has always been serious conflict control the foreign powers ofthe Senate, the Senate opposed this practice, but fear will once again usingcivilians threatened the Senate eventually Senate approved the proposal.Direct challenges to the Senate by making them even more isolated. Althoughthe Bill passed, but against the system of the Roman Republic, in accordance with Roman practice, financial affairs and diplomatic powers are exclusiveSenate.
Hostile relations between the two factions continued, in order to ensurepersonal safety and further land bills, will run for the next year.Intensification of the contradiction of both sides. In order to maintain abalance of power and the prevention of the abuse of power, Roman law civilservants can only be a one–year term and cannot be re-elected. Tribune isthe election illegal. As a result of the people‘s support, will be slightlyblind to the objection of the Senate, has launched the campaign. Slightlydamaged Roman law and traditional practices thoroughly angered the Senate,they recognize that this is the issue of land reform, but who want to rulethe Roman question, which relates to the survival of the Republic. Originalsupport or adopt a wait-and-see attitude of citizens towards the Senate.Eventually, the little cousin Nasica and conservative Senator nobles awayslightly, using violent means to solve the problem.
75 years after his death, Cicero comments will reform is just a littlepersonal political ambition and hatred of the Senate. Since the Gracchi andthe Senate know that land reform involving 70 000 families will make a largeclass loyal to the will, which seriously threaten the Roman Republican form,related to the survival of the Roman Republic.
After the martyrdom, reform movement did not stop. According to ABI‘s record129 BC, the Senate resolution, power of hearing the land dispute from thethree–person Committee to Governor c. Hand of Sempronius Tuditanus, thearchons to terminate a three–person Committee of land property rights trial. Three–person Committee and therefore will not be able to work hadstopped their activities. However, according to Livy records, about 395,000people in 125 BC number of Roman citizens, 75,000 people higher than 131 BC. According to Roman citizens registered only a bourgeois habit, you caninfer it is farmers who get to have the citizenship of the result.Therefore, Appian on the three-member Commission has stopped its activity isquestionable, the land reform movement did not stop.
BC 123 and 122 BC, his brother gaiyue·gelagu with the support of civiliansin Rome for two consecutive terms. Recorded very little literature ongaiyue·gelagu reform activities, in addition to legal name, the specificcontent of the reform did not record. On the reform and modern scholars to aconsiderable extent rely on logic and analysis of the .
Gueyo broader social reform. Perhaps inspired by the fate of its brother, hebegan to reform the judicial system. He passed a bill requiring citizenswithout people hearing shall not be sentenced to death. In order to breakthe monopoly of the Senate told the Court, Knights the right to as membersof the Tribunal, cover about the development of the law on trial (Lexiudiciaria). Modern scholars generally believe that the Act of Knights andthe Senate share jurisdiction. The law on trial deepened the veteran noblesand Knights the contradiction between these two levels. In order to get theKnights supported the reform, covering about applying the provincial tax ofAsia (Lex de provincial Asia), provides that the province for tax levied atax, tariff and farm taxes, auctions the right tax package by the Ombudsmanto the Knights, which damages the economic interests of veteran nobles.
Then, cover about to economic and social reforms. He restored the land Bill,increased distribution of Roman public land. According to Plutarch records,the civilians have to pay certain taxes to land . Because the public hadnearly exhausted, so he offered to colonial law as Supplement of the landlaw, in southern Italy established colonies such as minaiweiya andnaiputuniya, even overseas, he envisaged the establishment of a Romancolony, to the exporting population. In the migration of the population, headopted the Act on the road. Improved transportation in the implementationof the Road Act, to some extent, solve the employment problems ofunemployed, but interfering with the Senate and the Ombudsman‘s terms of reference.
In addition to land reform, but cover some decided to address soldiersrecruited and Italy an ally fighting for Roman citizenship issues. Becauseonly the owner will be able to join the army, most of the land after theirreturn to the hands of a few, soldiers began drying up. In addition, Italywere Rome a potential social problem, in the absence of Roman citizenship,they can’t enjoy the corresponding rights, but Italy who is Rome‘s mostmajor population, which forms a threat. In order to reduce their chances ofriots, Gaius proposed granting Roman citizenship to Latin allies, Italy an ally with Latin civil rights, but this Act was not only the original noble‘sfierce opposition, but also attracted those who do not want to givecitizenship to Italy if the citizen outcry, even in the reform camp alsodisagree with Gaius of the Act. Gueyo friend, supported the reform C.Fanniuslashed out at gueyo granted Italy Roman citizenship, the Bill was notadopted.
Italy people really started the riots after 30 years, luckily, Gaius didn’tsee the violence. Italy granted Roman citizenship, was too intense,apparently does not reality, decline in the prestige of Gaius.
In order to continue to promote the reform, covering about changes in thelaw, Tribune shall be eligible for re-election. 122 BC, he was elected forthe civil servants. The Senate decided to get rid of his brother to get ridof top CA. In this intense combat situations, gueyo made strategic mistakes,left Rome for formation of zhunuoniya colony of Carthage in Africa. Toestablish colonies is not attractive to most Romans. Senate hold cover aboutthis weakness, against the reform. They use about fellow Tribune delusu (M.Livius Drusus) Evans Revere of the Act was passed (the Lex Livia), announcedin Italy established the 12 colonies, each colonial immigrants 3 000 people.At the time Italy had no land of colonial, delusu bills are actuallyundermine reform, cultivate popularity. 121 BC Gaius campaign fail Ren Baomin. After he left office, the opposition announced the cancellation ofNorth Africa Bill referred to citizens ‘ Assembly of the colony, whenconflict between the two sides. Senate looking to crackdown on reformists,cover about 3 000 supporters died of afendingshan, their bodies put Bo Rivergueyo reform also failed.
Brothers Gracchus ‘ reforms has a very important role in Roman history,scholars are the causes of failure in the reform very seriously. Brothers Gracchus ‘ reforms failed because, at present there are three main kinds ofviews. The first view is that the late 2nd century BC, Rome in times ofslavery, economic development, land and agricultural bankruptcy is the trendof history and Gracchus failed to reform, is not so much due to theopposition of impeding, rather, economic development of Roman slavery;instead of opposition, rather, is the economy. This views think, Gracchus ‘ brothers reform to land for Center, its focus is recovery small-scale peasant economy, inverse trend and line, thus for history of development by denied; second species views put Gracchus ‘ brothers reform failed of reasons due for subjective and objective two aspects, think from objective Shang for, veteran hospital nobles too powerful, from subjective Shang for, reform sent not only compared weak, and lack strategy; third species views think, caused grid pulled ancient reform failed of main reasons, does not is simple of slavery development, Nor the elders nobles opposed, but thereformists themselves weak and inadequate policies of the reformist close,complexity of the Roman land tenure and use, lagu disregard tradition,destruction of practice approach.
Above there are reasonable on the one hand, the direct cause of death butfrom the Gracchi brothers (re-election) and the reflection of the reformsthe Senate, reform the fundamental reason for the failure is that ofGracchus destroyed the Roman Republic.
Senate opposition to Gracchus land back, not just the Bill threatens theirinterests, more importantly they put to the Assembly with its own land,instead of the customary first submitted to the Senate for discussion anddebate, and then reformed. The death of Gracchus, Roman 400 years since thefirst use of open violence to deal with differences between the ruling class, violence is no longer a simple is a matter between the civilians andthe nobility. Plutarch says: “previous questions, both big and small, bothparties compromise to resolve the dispute through friendly: Senatecompromise for fear of the people, people as a respect for the Senatecompromise. ”