Sub is not depicted as described by Herodotus, the desolate wasteland since ancient times. Archaeology and geology studies provide sufficient evidence, the Sahara was once a lush fertile land, wide range of amphibious animals, elephants, hippos, fish,mollusks, such as the bison, Buffalo and, later, there kinds. Bison, believed to be theancestor of all cattle breeds in Europe. A race called Nigro to live there, they made a living by hunting and animal husbandry.
Before thousands of or tens of thousands of years of human history, the Sahara already there is evidence of human habitation of the most obvious, is the ancient pictures painted on caves and rock, this sub everywhere, particularly in most of the enazheer plateau. Prehistoric rock paintings found in the Sahara desert, more than foundanywhere in the world; now we know these pictures Nigro of the earliest works of art.
Paintings of the Sahara in Algeria within Acer in the middle of the Sahara desert towers in the West of the plateau stage, also known as Tower murals in the West. Here there is a mountain named taxili, 800 km, an average elevation of 1 more than 000 square meter, peak of 2 335 meters. Years of exposure makes this mountain range like the surface of the moon as chill blows, barren, lonely. In the ancient days, where there was abundant water, lush forests and vast pastures. Tower West in, in indigenous of Tuareg people language in the mean is “has River of platform”, however is long time yilai, here already is river dry, uninhabited, empty left river erosion and into of countless Valley and a seat seat disorganized stands with of Sawtooth-like small mountain, and huge of mushroom-like pillars, seems to in to world silent to talk here had occurred of all, and painting is became they talk of only way.
Early 20th century France colonial army, Kohl and Egypt captain and several officerssuch as Lieutenant Brennan, Algeria 500 km south of Algiers during an inspection inan area not yet conquered, accidentally discovered the unknown murals, they are very curious. According to Brennan, worm: “in 1933, when I was leading a camel teamsScouting taxiligaoyuan repeatedly found several ‘ art gallery ‘, Oh, exhibits so many!Hunter, Coachman, elephants, cattle, as well as religious rituals and scenes of familylife. I was deeply touched by these pictures, so I spent a lot of time sketching to copy these works of art. ”
When Brennan, the sketch show France archaeologists and geographers to watch when they are very excited. As it will no doubt prove that Sahara desert is not as deserted as people imagine, there have been water, pasture, the multiplication of the human, or the mural as an explanation to it?
Among those who saw Brennan sketch drawing, famous Explorer hengli·luote. He isan orphan, living alone at the age of 14, have nobody to rely on training at an early age his indomitable character and indomitable fighting spirit, and later he became an air force pilot. At the age of 19, since–time accident one of his ears are deaf, ended his flying career. However, he has not lost hope for life, a chance so that he fell in love with the vast expanse of the desert. He passed through in the desert, walking more than 30,000 kilometers, accumulated a wealth of experience in the desert, he visits the desert as their lifelong career.
He took 1.5 years to visit the area in the West of the Tower, and scattered in the vicinity of the area made friends of the Tuareg. The indigenous peoples are still scattered in the River on dry land, the men cast a veil, women are not covered, live a flamboyant life. In some of the tens of thousands of years ago is washed with water from the cave, he found a number of well-preserved frescoes, he was overwhelmed with wonder and joy. Many of these murals record the prehistoric era of interesting things:naked Hunter in archery, round–headed Warrior throw Spears, calm shepherds waistaprons, wearing a Egypt-style headband, holding a Clarion in cattle, there are amazing canoe. Also painted on the walls there are many animals, some have already disappeared from the Earth; also like rhinos, hippos, ostriches, giraffes, and has alreadydisappeared on the ground.
Faced with these brilliant masterpieces created by prehistoric humans, Lott excitement was beyond words, he is determined to put the art in original size and color copies. But just on the individual is in any case impossible, so he determined to organizean expedition to the West of the tower to complete this task. But a fledgling young man, don’t even have a high school diploma, who will respond to his call? He worked at the University of Paris, and finally received his doctor‘s degree. When World War II broke out, Lott spinal injury, bedridden for as long as 10 years, copying works ofart in the West of the Tower plan had to be shelved.
In 1955, Charlotte returned to fitness, he was running around to get France some of the support and funding of research institutions and Government departments, hasassembled a team of 4 artists, 1 photographer and 1 understand the Berber language team composed of young girls. They carry a wide variety necessities, starting in February 1956, first flew to Algeria Janets city, and from there to the North, and camels walking 8 days, to arrive at the destination. Worked all the way, tasting the hardships.
Taxili natural environment is very bad, the disparity between day and night, air drying, often during the day winds, sand fly, it was unbearable. Taxili rock paintings scattered across walls projecting parts bent and hanging rocks, some paintings turned Horn, skip the cracks. The pictures in order to copy down the exact text, expedition endured the bitter cold and scorching heat, lack of water and the lonely, isolated in the desert, often kneeling or lying down for a few hours or even a few day jobs.
In November 1956, cold weather, expedition exhausting, work came to an end. In 1957, Charlotte and recruit some high enthusiasm of young people back to work. Finally, he copied the 1 500 square meters of murals brought back to Paris, which is by far the greatest of prehistoric art discovered by copying the manuscripts, then these prehistoric art are on display at the Louvre Museum, the visitors stunned and at the same time prehistoric man can create such beautiful works of art was incredible.
Explore the “dream“ dies of causes
Sub why death? Once a place of rich fertile soil, and now changed beyond recognition, leaving only an inhospitable desert, what is the reason? Scientists now believe that the answer lies in the “monsoon“ in the history of the changes. Monsoon rains from Western Africa and central to bring water to the Sahara. Late prehistoric culture in sub prosperity, due to monsoon rains stretching–we straight to the North a distance from the area‘s Lakes and streams into the marshes can prove it. Around 10000 BC, the area started to become more humid. From 7000 BC to 2000 BC, most of the time, the region becomes more moist. 3500 BC around Lake area extended to the maximum. But, for some reason, sub monsoon rains suddenly decreased rainfall and evaporation is eventually reversed without a save. Falling rain quickly dried by the Sun,the water cannot accumulate.
Although 750 BC and 500 ad and has had a few more brief periods of rainfall, but the Lake was gradually reduced, reply of the Sahara desert were administered. The Valley, Eastern Mediterranean plants decreased, instead of tropical plants, and spreadgradually to the plateau. Future of human self-destruction, feed livestock more andmore, and undermined the growth of plants. This sub is still in existence today. Cutting down trees in the guangshan so that large groups of animals through, burning large areas of forest converted to grazing land. Over a century, plants wither degradation from tropical “Savanna“ into “Gan Kuang grasslands“, and from “Gan Kuang Prairie“ into the desert, finally leaving only those pictures and handmade products, keeprecords of where people lived a prosperous life.
Sand in the Sahara, is caused by the special nature of their water systems. Sahara topographic maps and aerial photographs have shown that extremely complex system of waterways and rivers formed and eroded Hill. But all the streams and rivers arenot flowing into the sea, but into the inland basins. Is often the case, the water flowto the ocean, the alluvium along the away. However, in the Sahara, alluvial silt into the basin, gradually filling the basin. River grade reduction, water has gradually slowed.
After the water flows slowly and cannot be washed away alluvial, stranded in places of low bottom slope alluvium into the obstacles blocking the flow. Water to find another way out, to spread on both sides, forming a swamp. In the rays of the sun shine, after evaporation of the water, dry the swamps. Prehistoric Saharan stream of river, has dried up. In places such as amaduoluer, tegehasai as well as Tao Dengni, saltbeds can still be seen, is the ancient remains of the inland basins, where the moisture evaporated and left behind a rock salt dissolved in it.
Some very large currents, such as the end of mosuoyi–ashakali, from the mountainssouth slope flow of the Niger river landscape together. This River is longer than anyother water life. Once upon a time in the many large lakes, now only one of Lake Chad, but before the area had over 200,000 square kilometers, now it has shrunk to 15000 square kilometres. Stream after the river dried up, the ancient alluvial materialsexposed to the Sun, the wind blows from the high to the low alluvial and quartz grains last massive piles up, into the sandy desert and sand dunes. The other hand, when rivers flood gravel left debris and chunks of ancient sandstone eroded down intogravel, thus forming a gravelly desert.
Sahara rock pictures of ancient ruins as well as the outstanding first collected only after the 19th century Europeans into the Sahara desert. First of all, 3 United Kingdom explorers, dikensen·denamu, and Xiu·Ke lapodun and woerte·wudenai across thebarren land, Lake Chad was discovered in 1822. After 4 years, major Scot yalishanda·gedeng·laien, was the first to reach the fabled mubuketu of Europe. He was killed there. In 1828, the French leinai·jiali disguised as Arabs, starting from the mubuketu, isthe first from South to North across the Sahara of the Europeans. He in the scorching sun, stand the dust cyclone, struggling, almost dying of thirst from lack of water on the way, but finally reached Morocco. Gary Mirage play a trick on them also suffer.This phenomenon is always encountered trouble in the desert. That is when layers of air and the warm ground contact extension, illusion caused by light refraction effects. Seeing visions is a typical Gali, a large lake surrounded by lush green trees.
Following Boutros Boutros-Ghali after the feat, the French probe into the Sahara, serve as an increasingly important role. In 1830, France occupied Algiers, followed by aslow marching South. For planned construction of crossing the Sahara railway, established France‘s title to territory, expedition, measuring multiple times; also conquered tribes, had played a few times. And through it all colonization activities, result draws a map of the earliest pieces of Coke. First is Germany drawn scientists, explorersBALS. In 1850, he set off from Tripoli, and didn’t come back until 1855. He had crossed the Fezzan region, enazheergaoyuan, Ahil mountains, and kaaoya, East as far asChad, West as far as mubuketu. He draws a map to sub terrain for the first time withthe right concept, marking out those old olive trees and Cypress Mountain, has dried up Valley and the mountains.
BALS himself may not be aware, own Al and the Fezzan area of stone paintings havelaid the groundwork for Saharawi archaeological research. He found pictures of cows and earlier (1847) in Algeria South of Oren called match Ott and found two smalloasis of mojiatahatanniya stone picture is very similar. BALS estimates must have lived nomadic peoples in the area. He also noted that the stone completely missing the camel, so think the camel is only at a late stage in the presence of the Saharan. This statement has been proven to be correct. He divides history into a camel in the Sahara and the camel period, later research work in this staging method.
Explore the mysterious history of the further work of the Sahara desert, is one of early 20th century France Faramand, a geologist on the Algeria cave South of Oren stone made comparisons, had concluded that there had been times respectively beforethe era of camels and camel, as inferred in BALS. However, he further studied, according to various technical characteristics to be compared, for example, the line how to use, is a collapse or a sleek, color tone, character costume weapon design detailsare studied one by one. He also noted that the painting‘s oldest wild water buffalo,Buffalo no longer visible in the stone in the late.
This unique species of animals, France scientists monopril Arnett stone inscriptions in the study of the mountain are not seen. But in these pictures to see a large number of domesticated cattle, led him to believe that there is a cow, later than oral duration of South Buffalo. Monopril think those later stone, is part of a camel, horse pictures also belong to this period. However, later discovered the significance of horses and horse people, so in the history of the Sahara cattle and camels between into a horse. This according to the stages of Zoology, animals gradually replaced wild animals like Buffalo‘s priorities for the Foundation. Now everyone thinks that the camel period began in about 2 000 years ago—the camel was originally found in 46 BC in literature–the camel may be in the beginning only after the weapons spreadeverywhere.